After going through the various types of developmental delays in the last article (Ref. to the link below to study various types of developmental delays), early and effective Physiotherapy intervention helps in gaining milestones and early recovery.
WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF THE TREATMENT?
- Help the child to do ADL(Activities of daily living).
- Gain the milestones. Eg sitting,standing crawling etc.
- To Improve muscle strength and co- ordination.
- To improve posture.
Physiotherapy intervention starts with improving gross motor skills eg grasping objects and in improving the posture of the child.
REMEMBER, EARLY INTERVENTION IS THE KEY FOR DEVELOPMENT.
WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS ASPECTS TO BE COVERED DURING PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT?
The following activities and developments have to be carefully looked after or studied in child.
- Fine motor activities.
- Gross motor activities.
- Muscle strength.
- ROM (range of motion.)
- Sensory re- education.
- Developing vestibular system( for attaining balance and co- ordination).
- Stretching exercises.
- Postural reaching.
These are some of the exercises which can be performed to gain developmental milestones and enhancing the activity of the child. But please make it a point that you consult your physiotherapist before doing it for proper guidance and evaluation as every child develops differently, therefore the intervention can slightly differ from child to child.
- SUPPORTED SITTING.
*Make your child sit in supported position using hands.
* Put both the hands on the sides.
*Slowly bend the body both ways alternatively in such a way that weight is taken over by hand.
*Repeat on the opposite side.
ADVANTAGES OF THIS EXERCISE-
Helps in developing proprioception
* Provides sensory input to brain for balance.
Encourage baby for tummy time for at least 10-15 min for at least 6-8 times a day. Babies need to play on their tummies everyday.
*increase tummy time by using coloured toys or ask mother to talk to the baby while playing.
ADVANTAGES OF THIS EXERCISE
-One of the best exercises for core strengthening of the babies. Core strengthening is the important factor for achieving posture during treatment.
- BRIDGING EXERCISES-
- Child lies on the floor with knees bent and feet flat on the floor.
- With knees bent, push on heels to raise buttocks off the floor.
- Hold it for 3 to 5 seconds.
Modifications- You may ask the child to hold the soft toy between both knees while raising buttocks.
Advantages of this exercise –
Increases core strength.
Helps increasing co-ordination and balance activities.
- BALL EXERCISES-
- Ask your child to lie on therapy ball with knees bent or legs straight (for small children exercises can be done on bed or couch for soft landing surface).
- Bounce up and down few times, ask the child to straighten legs and arms (can be done by physio for smaller children) and maintain balance.
- Ask mother to talk to the child during exercise to increase their attention.
Advantages of this exercise-
* Great exercise to strengthen back muscles for regaining posture.
OTHER CORE STRENGHTENING EXERCISES WHICH CAN BE DONE ARE-
(c) Climbing a slide upwards.
(d) Tug of war games.
- SINGLE LEG STANCE-
Single leg stance is a challenging exercise a kid balances through one leg.
GOOD EXERCISE TO PROVIDE INPUT SIGNALS FOR BALANCE AND CO ORDINATION.
KICKING THE BALL-
Ask the child to kick with a weaker leg.
Helps in strengthening weaker muscles.
- BRUSHING ON SKIN SURFACE (SENSORY RE- EDUCATION)
(a) One of the most successful intervention done by physiotherapists.
(b) Child stands in the front of the mirror
(c) Sensory inputs given using movements of brush on face.
(d) Sensation of brush on facial skin plus the sight of brush on face provides a great sensory input.
*studies suggest that it gives a visual biofeedback plus sensory retraining.
(a) Enhance tactile perception.
Provides biofeedback even if the touch is only a mirror reflection, not physical.
- HYDROTHERAPY EXERCISES-
Usually preferred for children with high muscle tone (HYPERTONIA).
Make child wear ankle weight straps in water.
Ask the child to walk.
Physio supports by standing at the back.
- KICKING IN WATER-
Good exercise for balance as well as improving strength.
THROWING AND COLLECTING COLOURED BALLS IN WATER.
Helps in increasing gross motor activity and going and picking increases co-ordination.
# Increases lung capacity.
# Improves strength.
# Increases flexibility.
ROLE OF PARENTS DURING TREATMENT
# Praise your child for even a small success.
# Let the child work hard. Place the toys out of reach of child.
# Make the child confident that you are there for him/her to help.
# Provide a stimulating environment to the child.
Eg interiors of the house colourful, diff shapes of toys etc.
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